Unlike many other organs or tissues of the body, a woman’s breasts are shaped and defined by time. Before puberty, there’s nothing there at all. Then – exciting or intimidating as it may be – breasts begin to grow, taking a few years to reach their final shape and in the process becoming an important part of our body image. In human beings breasts are sexual organs, and it doesn’t take girls (or boys for that matter) long to discover that! Their exquisite sensitivity gives pleasure and their rounded shape helps define our womanly style – small and sporty, large and motherly, firm or soft. During pregnancy and after birth, breasts have a new lease on life as we discover their miraculous capacity to feed our babies as much and for as long as we need to. Though not all women are able to breastfeed, with the right help and support most can enjoy this simple, natural way to bond with and nurture our young. As breasts age, other changes take place which are completely normal – or at least common. Some are medically insignificant, such as the gradual change around the time of menopause from firm, dense glandular tissue to softer fatty tissue. Others tend to draw attention and cause anxiety because until investigated we cannot be sure that they are harmless. These are the benign conditions of the breast or “aberrations of normal development”. Lumps within breast tissue Lumps are common, occurring not only in aging breasts but also sometimes in younger breasts. A lump is a small piece of tissue or area under the skin that feels firmer than the surrounding tissue and can be felt from the outside. It doesn’t usually develop overnight and won’t be noticed until it reaches a certain size – at which point finding it can cause alarm and concern. Lumps that are medically concerning are those which stay there regardless of the menstrual cycle. Some women have naturally lumpy or uneven breasts and when the tissues swell under hormonal influence these “lumps” are more easily felt. For your own peace of mind, don’t hesitate to ask your doctor or nurse to check anything that worries you, but it’s the distinct lump which will require further investigation. Worrying as they are, many such lumps turn out to be “benign”. This means that although it is not normal breast tissue and may be growing larger, it does not spread or invade other tissues, either locally or by travelling through the lymph system (as cancer cells do). If you visit your doctor with a breast lump that worries you, he or he will ask you how long it has been there, whether you’ve...